L’apprendimento di competenze motorie attraverso stili d’insegnamento di produzione. Risultati di un intervento didattico nella scuola primaria.

Dario Colella, Cristina d'Arando, Domenico Monacis

Abstract


Le competenze motorie sono costituite da fattori diversi e complementari, abilità-capacità motorie, conoscenze e atteggiamenti della persona, interdipendenti e contestualizzati.

Gli stili d’insegnamento di produzione, orientati sulla valorizzazione delle risposte motorie dell’allievo, promuovono il processo di apprendimento e costituiscono fattori di mediazione per il processo educativo poichè favoriscono i legàmi tra le funzioni motorie, cognitive, emotive e sociali.

La ricerca didattica dovrebbe procedere in due direzioni diverse e complementari: l’individuazione e la sperimentazione di contenuti e modalità organizzative, strumenti ed attrezzature e la relativa proposta di stili e strategie d’insegnamento, per favorire la mediazione tra insegnante-compito motorio-allievo-contesto, funzionali all’apprendimento ed allo sviluppo di competenze motorie, attraverso l’interazione tra i diversi fattori.

Obiettivo dello studio: valutare e confrontare gli effetti della variazione di stili d’insegnamento attraverso cui sono stati proposti compiti motori basati sulla scoperta di varianti esecutive, sulla coordinazione motoria, la percezione del sé (self-perception) ed il gradimento (enjoyment).

Il campione è costituito da quattro gruppi-classe della scuola primaria, due assegnati all’insegnante generalista (gruppo di controllo) e due all’insegnante specialista (gruppo sperimentale) che hanno proposto quattro unità di apprendimento sulle medesime tematiche. I risultati hanno evidenziato che la scelta di compiti motori e delle modalità organizzative, basati sulla variabilità della pratica e la variazione degli stili d’insegnamento, produce effetti non solo sullo sviluppo motorio coordinativo ma anche sulla self-perception e l’enjoyment (p<.05), rispetto al gruppo di controllo seguito dall’insegnante generalista. Variare gli stili d’insegnamento sollecita diverse modalità di apprendimento dell’allievo e costituisce un fattore determinante per lo sviluppo dei fattori psicologici correlati all’esperienza motoria.


Keywords


competenze motorie, gradimento, Percezione del sé, Scuola, Stili d’insegnamento.

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References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.32043/gsd.v4i4.255

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