Marianna Liparoti


The evaluation of the upper limb movements in sports has two main objectives: the improvement of the athletic gesture and the prevention of injuries. This assessment can be carried out using different methodological approaches, i.e. qualitative or quantitative methods of analysis. In this work, a narrative review is performed on the methodology, applied in sports, for the assessment of the upper limb. Using a didactic-educational approach, this study aims to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the qualitative and quantitative methods used to estimate the movements of the upper limb in athletes. Furthermore, this work aims to formulate recommendations for carrying out movement analysis, useful for improving performance evaluation in sports and training monitoring.

Full Text:

PDF (Italiano)


Asker, M., Holm, L. W., Källberg, H., Waldén, M., & Skillgate, E. (2018). Female adolescent elite handball players are more susceptible to shoulder problems than their male counterparts. Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy: Official journal of the ESSKA, 26(7), 1892–1900.

Barfield, J. W., Anz, A. W., Osterman, C. L., Andrews, J. R., & Oliver, G. D. (2019). The Influence of an Active Glove Arm in Softball Pitching: A Biomechanical Evaluation. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(3), 200–208. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG.

Camp, C. L., Tubbs, T. G., Fleisig, G. S., Dines, J. S., Dines, D. M., Altchek, D. W., & Dowling, B. (2017). The Relationship of Throwing Arm Mechanics and Elbow Varus Torque: Within-Subject Variation for Professional Baseball Pitchers Across 82,000 Throws. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 45(13), 3030–3035. SAGE Publications Inc STM.

Chung, K. C., & Lark, M. E. (2017). Upper Extremity Injuries in Tennis Players: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management. Hand Clinics, 33(1), 175–186.

Cortesi, M., Giovanardi, A., Gatta, G., Mangia, A. L., Bartolomei, S., & Fantozzi, S. (2019). Inertial Sensors in Swimming: Detection of Stroke Phases through 3D Wrist Trajectory. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 18(3), 438–447.

Derrick, T. R., van den Bogert, A. J., Cereatti, A., Dumas, R., Fantozzi, S., & Leardini, A. (2020). ISB recommendations on the reporting of intersegmental forces and moments during human motion analysis. Journal of Biomechanics, 99, 109533.

Escamilla, R. F., Fleisig, G. S., Groeschner, D., & Akizuki, K. (2017). Biomechanical Comparisons Among Fastball, Slider, Curveball, and Changeup Pitch Types and Between Balls and Strikes in Professional Baseball Pitchers. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 45(14), 3358–3367. SAGE Publications Inc STM.

Fleisig, G. S., Diffendaffer, A. Z., Aune, K. T., Ivey, B., & Laughlin, W. A. (2017). Biomechanical Analysis of Weighted-Ball Exercises for Baseball Pitchers. Sports Health, 9(3), 210–215. SAGE Publications.

Gordon, B. J., & Dapena, J. (2013). A method to determine the orientation of the upper arm about its longitudinal axis during dynamic motions. Journal of Biomechanics, 46(1), 97–101.

Kapandji, I. (1971). The physiology of the joints, volume I, upper limb. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 50(2), 96. LWW.

Landolsi, M., Labiadh, L., Zarrouk, F., Maaref, K., Ghannouchi, S., Tabka, Z., & Lacouture, P. (2018). Kinematic analysis of the shot-put: A method of assessing the mechanical work of the hand action force. European Journal of Sport Science, 18(9), 1208–1216. Routledge.

Leardini, A., Chiari, L., Della Croce, U., & Cappozzo, A. (2005). Human movement analysis using stereophotogrammetry: Part 3. Soft tissue artifact assessment and compensation. Gait & posture, 21(2), 212–225. Elsevier.

Lefèvre-Colau, M.-M., Nguyen, C., Palazzo, C., Srour, F., Paris, G., Vuillemin, V., Poiraudeau, S., et al. (2018). Kinematic patterns in normal and degenerative shoulders. Part II: Review of 3-D scapular kinematic patterns in patients with shoulder pain, and clinical implications. Annals of physical and rehabilitation medicine, 61(1), 46–53. Elsevier.

Lempereur, M., Brochard, S., Leboeuf, F., & Rémy-Néris, O. (2014). Validity and reliability of 3D marker based scapular motion analysis: A systematic review. Journal of biomechanics, 47(10), 2219–2230. Elsevier.

Lin, D. J., Wong, T. T., & Kazam, J. K. (2018). Shoulder injuries in the overhead-throwing athlete: Epidemiology, mechanisms of injury, and imaging findings. Radiology, 286(2), 370–387. Radiological Society of North America.

Liparoti, M. (2021). Effects of motor and cognitive loads on postural stability in healthy children. Universidad de Alicante. Área de Educación Física y Deporte.

Liparoti, M., Della Corte, M., Rucco, R., Sorrentino, P., Sparaco, M., Capuano, R., Minino, R., et al. (2019). Gait abnormalities in minimally disabled people with Multiple Sclerosis: A 3D-motion analysis study. Multiple sclerosis and related disorders, 29, 100–107. Elsevier.

Lyman, S., Fleisig, G. S., Waterbor, J. W., Funkhouser, E. M., Pulley, L., Andrews, J. R., Osinski, E. D., et al. (2001). Longitudinal study of elbow and shoulder pain in youth baseball pitchers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(11), 1803–1810.

Minino, R., Troisi Lopez, E., Sorrentino, P., Rucco, R., Lardone, A., Pesoli, M., Tafuri, D., et al. (2021). The effects of different frequencies of rhythmic acoustic stimulation on gait stability in healthy elderly individuals: A pilot study. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1–11. Nature Publishing Group.

Mitchinson, L., Campbell, A., Oldmeadow, D., Gibson, W., & Hopper, D. (2013). Comparison of upper arm kinematics during a volleyball spike between players with and without a history of shoulder injury. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 29(2), 155–164. Human Kinetics.

Naito, K., Takagi, H., Yamada, N., Hashimoto, S., & Maruyama, T. (2014). Intersegmental dynamics of 3D upper arm and forearm longitudinal axis rotations during baseball pitching. Human Movement Science, 38, 116–132.

Okoroha, K. R., Meldau, J. E., Lizzio, V. A., Meta, F., Stephens, J. P., Moutzouros, V., & Makhni, E. C. (2018). Effect of Fatigue on Medial Elbow Torque in Baseball Pitchers: A Simulated Game Analysis. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 46(10), 2509–2513. SAGE Publications Inc STM.

Payton, C. J., Bartlett, R., & British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences (A c. di). (2008). Biomechanical evaluation of movement in sport and exercise: The British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences guidelines (1. publ.). London: Routledge.

Rucco, ROSARIA, Liparoti, M., & Agosti, V. (2020). A new technical method to analyse the kinematics of the human movements and sports gesture. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 20(4), 2360–2363.

Rucco, Rosaria, Sorriso, A., Liparoti, M., Ferraioli, G., Sorrentino, P., Ambrosanio, M., & Baselice, F. (2018). Type and location of wearable sensors for monitoring falls during static and dynamic tasks in healthy elderly: A review. Sensors, 18(5), 1613. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute.

Seminati, E., & Minetti, A. E. (2013). Overuse in volleyball training/practice: A review on shoulder and spine-related injuries. European Journal of Sport Science, 13(6), 732–743.

da Silva, R. T. (2015). SPORTS INJURIES OF THE UPPER LIMBS. Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia, 45(2), 122–131.

Touzard, P., Kulpa, R., Bideau, B., Montalvan, B., & Martin, C. (2019). Biomechanical analysis of the “waiter’s serve” on upper limb loads in young elite tennis players. European Journal of Sport Science, 19(6), 765–773. Routledge.

van Trijffel, E., van de Pol, R. J., Oostendorp, R. A., & Lucas, C. (2010). Inter-rater reliability for measurement of passive physiological movements in lower extremity joints is generally low: A systematic review. Journal of physiotherapy, 56(4), 223–235. Elsevier.

Vigouroux, L., Devise, M., Cartier, T., Aubert, C., & Berton, E. (2019). Performing pull-ups with small climbing holds influences grip and biomechanical arm action. Journal of Sports Sciences, 37(8), 886–894. Routledge.

Yang, J., Mann, B. J., Guettler, J. H., Dugas, J. R., Irrgang, J. J., Fleisig, G. S., & Albright, J. P. (2014). Risk-Prone Pitching Activities and Injuries in Youth Baseball: Findings From a National Sample. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 42(6), 1456–1463.

Zouzias, I. C., Hendra, J., Stodelle, J., & Limpisvasti, O. (2018). Golf Injuries: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Treatment. The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 26(4), 116–123.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.32043/gsd.v6i1s.500


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Giornale Italiano di Educazione alla Salute, Sport e Didattica Inclusiva

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Italian Journal of Health Education, Sports and Inclusive Didactics 
ISSN: 2532-3296