Ilaria Loperto, Paola Bonfigli, Clorinda Sorrentino, Angela Vivona, Lucia Martiniello, Lucia De Coppi


Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (AMD) and a good level of physical activity (LPA) are associated with a better quality of life and lower mortality and morbidity.

The purpose of the study is to evaluate AMD and LPA in relation to socio-economic factors, knowledge and attitudes through an online questionnaire. The KIDMED and IPAQ questionnaires were used to evaluate AMD and LPA.

648 subjects, 70 males and 578 females, aged between 15 and 30 years were recruited. 57.87% of subjects have high AMD, 35.80% medium and 6.33% low; 12.96% of the subjects are inactive, 41.98% sufficiently active, 45.06% active or very active.

Multivariate analysis highlights negative association between AMD and smoking (OR:0.553, p=0.004) and alcohol (OR:0.399, p=0.001), positive with sport (OR:14.345, p=0.002), level of knowledge (OR:1.547, p=0.001) and information obtained from healthcare professionals (OR:3.969, p=0.018).

For the IPAQ score, there is a negative association with BMI (OR:0.909, p=0.015). Instead, the positive association with KIDMED is confirmed (OR:1.195, p=0.002).

In conclusion, the results emphasize the importance of knowledge and authority of the source of information, as well as confirming the association between incorrect lifestyles. It is essential to increase the training opportunities for young people through authoritative professional figures.


L’aderenza alla dieta mediterranea (ADM) e un buon livello di attività fisica (LAF) sono associati ad una migliore qualità della vita ed a una minore mortalità e morbilità.

L’obiettivo dello studio è valutare ADM e LAF in relazione a fattori socioeconomici, conoscenze e attitudini tramite un questionario online. I questionari KIDMED e IPAQ sono stati usati per valutare ADM e LAF.

Sono stati reclutati 648 soggetti, 70 maschi e 578 femmine, di età tra 15 e 30 anni. Il 57.87% dei soggetti ha alta ADM, il 35.80% media e il 6.33% bassa; il 12.96% dei soggetti è inattivo, il 41.98% sufficientemente attivo, il 45.06% attivo o molto attivo.

L’analisi multivariata evidenzia associazione negativa tra ADM e fumo (OR:0.553, p=0.004) e alcol (OR:0.399, p=0.001), positiva con lo sport (OR:14.345, p=0.002), il livello di conoscenze (OR:1.547, p=0.001) e informazioni reperite da personale sanitario (OR:3.969, p=0.018).

Per l’IPAQ score, vi è un’associazione negativa con il BMI (OR:0.909, p=0.015). Si conferma, invece, l’associazione positiva con il KIDMED (OR:1.195, p=0.002).

In conclusione, i risultati pongono l’accento sull’importanza della conoscenza e dell’autorità della fonte di informazioni, oltre a confermare cognizioni già note come l’associazione tra stili di vita errati. Risulta fondamentale aumentare le opportunità di formazione per i giovani tramite figure professionali autorevoli in un determinato setting.


Mediterranean Diet, KIDMED, IPAQ, knowledge

Full Text:

PDF (Italiano)


Ahmad, M. H., Salleh, R., Mohamad Nor, N. S., Baharuddin, A., Rodzlan Hasani, W. S., Omar, A., et al. (2018). Comparison between self-reported physical activity (IPAQ-SF) and pedometer among overweight and obese women in the MyBFF@home study. BMC Womens Health, 18(Suppl 1), 100.

Albuquerque, G., Moreira, P., Rosário, R., Araújo, A., Teixeira, V. H., Lopes, O., et al. (2017). Adherence to the Mediterranean diet in children: Is it associated with economic cost? Porto Biomed J, 2(4), 115-119.

Archero, F., Ricotti, R., Solito, A., Carrera, D., Civello, F., Di Bella, R., et al. (2018). Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet among School Children and Adolescents Living in Northern Italy and Unhealthy Food Behaviors Associated to Overweight. Nutrients, 10(9).

Atkins, J. L., Whincup, P. H., Morris, R. W., Lennon, L. T., Papacosta, O., & Wannamethee, S. G. (2014). High diet quality is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in older men. J Nutr, 144(5), 673-680.

Belahsen, R. (2014). Nutrition transition and food sustainability. Proc Nutr Soc, 73(3), 385-388.

Bibiloni, M. e. M., Pons, A., & Tur, J. A. (2016). Compliance with the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED) among Balearic Islands' Adolescents and Its Association with Socioeconomic, Anthropometric and Lifestyle Factors. Ann Nutr Metab, 68(1), 42-50.

Bulló, M., Lamuela-Raventós, R., & Salas-Salvadó, J. (2011). Mediterranean diet and oxidation: nuts and olive oil as important sources of fat and antioxidants. Curr Top Med Chem, 11(14), 1797-1810.

Cleland, C., Ferguson, S., Ellis, G., & Hunter, R. F. (2018). Validity of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) for assessing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behaviour of older adults in the United Kingdom. BMC Med Res Methodol, 18(1), 176.

Fiore, M., Ledda, C., Rapisarda, V., Sentina, E., Mauceri, C., D'Agati, P., et al. (2015). Medical school fails to improve Mediterranean diet adherence among medical students. Eur J Public Health, 25(6), 1019-1023.

Galilea-Zabalza, I., Buil-Cosiales, P., Salas-Salvadó, J., Toledo, E., Ortega-Azorín, C., Díez-Espino, J., et al. (2018). Mediterranean diet and quality of life: Baseline cross-sectional analysis of the PREDIMED-PLUS trial. PLoS One, 13(6), e0198974.

García Cabrera, S., Herrera Fernández, N., Rodríguez Hernández, C., Nissensohn, M., Román-Viñas, B., & Serra-Majem, L. (2015). KIDMED TEST; PREVALENCE OF LOW ADHERENCE TO THE MEDITERRANEAN DIET IN CHILDREN AND YOUNG; A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW. Nutr Hosp, 32(6), 2390-2399.

Grao-Cruces, A., Nuviala, A., Fernández-Martínez, A., Porcel-Gálvez, A. M., Moral-García, J. E., & Martínez-López, E. J. (2013). [Adherence to the Mediterranean diet in rural and urban adolescents of southern Spain, life satisfaction, anthropometry, and physical and sedentary activities]. Nutr Hosp, 28(4), 1129-1135.

Grosso, G., Marventano, S., Yang, J., Micek, A., Pajak, A., Scalfi, L., et al. (2017). A comprehensive meta-analysis on evidence of Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular disease: Are individual components equal? Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 57(15), 3218-3232.

Hadjimbei, E., Botsaris, G., Gekas, V., & Panayiotou, A. G. (2016). Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Lifestyle Characteristics of University Students in Cyprus: A Cross-Sectional Survey. J Nutr Metab, 2016, 2742841.

La Fauci, V., Alessi, V., Assefa, D. Z., Lo Giudice, D., Calimeri, S., Ceccio, C., et al. (2020). Mediterranean diet: knowledge and adherence in Italian young people. Clin Ter, 171(5), e437-e443.

Navarro-González, I., López-Nicolás, R., Rodríguez-Tadeo, A., Ros-Berruezo, G., Martínez-Marín, M., & Doménech-Asensi, G. (2014). Adherence to the Mediterranean diet by nursing students of Murcia (Spain). Nutr Hosp, 30(1), 165-172.

Papadaki, S., & Mavrikaki, E. (2015). Greek adolescents and the Mediterranean diet: factors affecting quality and adherence. Nutrition, 31(2), 345-349.

Pérez-Gallardo, L., Mingo Gómez, T., Bayona Marzo, I., Ferrer Pascual, M., Marquez Calle, E., Rámirez Domínguez, R., et al. (2015). [Diet quality in college students with different academic profile]. Nutr Hosp, 31(5), 2230-2239.

Rao, M., Afshin, A., Singh, G., & Mozaffarian, D. (2013). Do healthier foods and diet patterns cost more than less healthy options? A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open, 3(12), e004277.

Rodrigo Vega, M., Ejeda Manzanera, J. M., Gonzalez Panero, M. P., & Mijancos Gurruchaga, M. T. (2014). [Changes in the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in students of grades of teaching and nursing after completing a course on nutrition]. Nutr Hosp, 30(5), 1173-1180.

Rosi, A., Paolella, G., Biasini, B., Scazzina, F., & Adolescents, S. W. G. o. N. S. i. (2019). Dietary habits of adolescents living in North America, Europe or Oceania: A review on fruit, vegetable and legume consumption, sodium intake, and adherence to the Mediterranean Diet. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, 29(6), 544-560.

Schwingshackl, L., & Hoffmann, G. (2014). Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Int J Cancer, 135(8), 1884-1897.

Sember, V., Meh, K., Sorić, M., Starc, G., Rocha, P., & Jurak, G. (2020). Validity and Reliability of International Physical Activity Questionnaires for Adults across EU Countries: Systematic Review and Meta Analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 17(19).

Serra-Majem, L., García-Closas, R., Ribas, L., Pérez-Rodrigo, C., & Aranceta, J. (2001). Food patterns of Spanish schoolchildren and adolescents: The enKid Study. Public Health Nutr, 4(6A), 1433-1438.

Stunkard, A. J., Sørensen, T., & Schulsinger, F. (1983). Use of the Danish Adoption Register for the study of obesity and thinness. Res Publ Assoc Res Nerv Ment Dis, 60, 115-120.

Tsakiraki, M., Grammatikopoulou, M. G., Stylianou, C., & Tsigga, M. (2011). Nutrition transition and health status of Cretan women: evidence from two generations. Public Health Nutr, 14(5), 793-800.

Zurita-Ortega, F., San Román-Mata, S., Chacón-Cuberos, R., Castro-Sánchez, M., & Muros, J. J. (2018). Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet Is Associated with Physical Activity, Self-Concept and Sociodemographic Factors in University Student. Nutrients, 10(8).

Štefan, L., Prosoli, R., Juranko, D., Čule, M., Milinović, I., Novak, D., et al. (2017). The Reliability of the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED) Questionnaire. Nutrients, 9(4).



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Giornale Italiano di Educazione alla Salute, Sport e Didattica Inclusiva

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Italian Journal of Health Education, Sports and Inclusive Didactics 
ISSN: 2532-3296