Tommaso Farina


The progressive increase in population in cities over the past 15-20 years has highlighted the critical issues typical of urban human settlements, such as environmental pollution, sedentariness, lack of urban green spaces, and the difficulty of managing increasingly frequent emergencies. The study of the relationships between the quality of the man-made environment and psychophysical well-being, both individual and collective, represents an increasingly decisive challenge, not only in the fields of architecture and urban planning, but also for the human and social sciences, including the sciences of education and pedagogy. In terms of design, research shows that the involvement of end-users in the process of creating an environment can respond more adequately to the needs of the users themselves, ensuring greater democratic and less resistance to change in the living and working environments that are to be created. Moving within the paradigms of participatory design, quality of life and outdoor education, and through the analysis of implemented projects, the paper aims to provide insights into the importance of urban parks, especially for the younger generation, as essential resources for maintaining a healthy lifestyle, making proper use of leisure time, and keeping alive the network of relationships and opportunities for socialization in the complex society.


Urban parks, Playgrounds, Participatory design, Outdoor education, Citizenship

Full Text:



Bertolini P., Farné R. (1978). Territorio e intervento culturale. Bologna: Cappelli.

Bortolotti A. (2020). Outdoor Education, Storia, ambienti, metodi. Padova: Guerini Scientifica.

Cohen D.A., McKenzie T.L., Sehgal A., Williamson S., Golinelli D., Lurie N. (2007). Contribution of public parks to physical activity. Am J Public Health, 97(3), 509-514. Doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2005.072447

Daly J. (2020). Superkilen: exploring the human–nonhuman relations of intercultural encounter, Journal of Urban Design, 25(1), 65-85. Doi: 10.1080/13574809.2019.1622409

Gardner H. (2013). Formae mentis. Saggio sulla pluralità dell’intelligenza. Milano: Feltrinelli.

Halbwachs M. (2008). Chicago. Morfologia sociale e migrazioni. Roma: Armando.

Mahnke F.H. (1996). Color Environment & Human Response. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Morin E. (2000). La testa ben fatta. Riforma dell’insegnamento e riforma del pensiero. Milano: Raffaello Cortina.

Olmstead F. (1999). Public parks and the enlargement of towns. In R.T. LeGates, F. Stout (Eds.), The City Reader (pp. 314-320). London: Routledge.

Piaget J. (1972). La formazione del simbolo nel bambino. Imitazione, gioco e sogno. Immagine e rappresentazione. Firenze: La Nuova Italia.

Pallarés V.I., Castellanos I.C. (2016). Public participation process as a tool for innovation in the design of public spaces. the case of superkilen park by Bjarke Ingels Group. Vesti BNTU, 25, 210-215.

Paolucci G. (2009). Pierre Bourdieu: strutturalismo costruttivista e sociologia relazionale. In M. Ghisleni, W. Privitera (Eds.), Sociologie Contemporanee (pp. 77-115) Torino: Utet.

Santelli Beccegato L. (2001). Pedagogia sociale. Riferimenti di base. Bari: La Scuola.

Schalock R.L., Verdugo-Alonso M.A. (2002). Handbook on Quality of Life for Human Service Practitioners. Washington: American Association on Mental Retardation.

Spinuzzi C. (2005). The Methodology of Participatory Design. Techinchal Communication, 52(2), 163-174.

United Nations (2017). New Urban Agenda. Quito: Habitat III. https://habitat3.org/wp-content/uploads/NUA-English.pdf

United Nations (2022). World Cities Report 2022. Envisaging the Future of Cities. Nairobi: United Nations Human Settlements Programme. https://unhabitat.org/wcr/

van Leeuwen J.P., Hermans K., Jylhä A., Quanjer A.J., Nijman H. (2018). Effectiveness of Virtual Reality in Participatory Urban Planning: A Case Study. In Proceedings of the 4th Media Architecture Biennale Conference (MAB18) (pp. 128-136). New York: Association for Computing Machinery. Doi: 10.1145/3284389.3284491

Vasquez D. (2010). Manuale di psicogeografia. Cuneo: Nerosubianco.

Wulf C. (2014). Le basi mimetiche, performative e rituali del gioco. EDUCAZIONE. Giornale di pedagogia critica, 3(2), 41-64.

Zhang Z., Wang M., Xu Z., Ye Y., Chen S., Pan Y., Chen J. (2021). The influence of Community Sports Parks on residents’ subjective well-being: A case study of Zhuhai City, China. Habitat International, 117, 98-116. Doi: 10.1016/j.habitatint.2021.102439

DOI: https://doi.org/10.32043/gsd.v7i3.986


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Italian Journal of Health Education, Sports and Inclusive Didactics 
ISSN: 2532-3296