Alessandro Cudicio, Valeria Agosti, Nicola Lo Vecchio, Eleonora Ciceri, Antonio Borgogni, Angelo Compare


It is widely accepted that physical activity, undertaken as a combination of aerobic, strength and balance exercise, has a key role in the reduction of overall age- related decline. For years now, also due to pandemic restrictions several distance exercises for elderly have been suggested. Elderly must face an inevitable physical decline and an increasing cognitive and learning limitation due to aging. This requires a global motor learning approach that goes beyond the mere segmental execution and lets the older senses the own body perception with the aim   to learn motor skills in a renewed modality, adapted to ageing limitations. Thus, there is a need to design an educational system dedicated to older people for remote exercise by means of a smartphone application. On this basis, the proposed intervention aims to educate elderly to build global movements through an innovative perspective based on the segmentary perception of the body during exercise with the aid of a smartphone.


Scienze Motorie, Motor Sicences, Sport, Education, Inclusion

Full Text:

PDF (Italiano)


Agosti, V., & Di Palma, D. (2020). Physical fitness, a lifelong learning behaviour in preventing sarcopenia: The need of an educational intervention. Acta Medica Mediterranea, 36(1), 417–420.

Alloatti, G., Antonutto, G., Bottinelli, R., Cevese, A., Concu, A., Conti, F., … Veicsteinas, A. (2012). Fisiologia dell’uomo (E. Ermes, ed.).

Ament, W., & Verkerke, G. J. (2009). Exercise and Fatigue. Sports Medicine, 39(5), 389–422.

Andersen, J. C. (2005). Stretching before and after Exercise: Effect on muscle soreness and injury risk. Journal of Athletic Training, 40(3), 218–220.

Arem, H., & Matthews, C. E. (2018). Importance of both increasing physical activity and reducing sitting time. British Journal of Sports Medicine, bjsports-2018-099595.

Bailey, D. P., & Locke, C. D. (2015). Breaking up prolonged sitting with light-intensity walking improves postprandial glycemia, but breaking up sitting with standing does not. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 18(3), 294–298.

Borg, G. (1970). Perceived exertion as an indicator of somatic stress. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 2(2), 92–98.

Borg, G. (1998). Borg ́s perceived exertion and pain scales. Human Kinetics, (July 1998), 111.

Borgogni, A., & Farinella, R. (2017). Le città attive. Percorsi pubblici nel corpo urbano.

Boyas, S., & Guével, A. (2011). Neuromuscular fatigue in healthy muscle: Underlying factors and adaptation mechanisms. Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, 54(2), 88–108.

Bull, F., Saad Al-Ansari, S., Biddle, S., Borodulin, K., Buman, M., Cardon, G., … Willumsen, J. (2020). World Health Organization 2020 Guidelines on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 1451–1462.

Carraro, A. (2014). Valutare il piacere nelle attività motorie: il PACES-It. ITALIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, 9736, 259–265.

Castañeda-Babarro, A., Coca, A., Arbillaga-Etxarri, A., & Gutiérrez-Santamaría, B. (2020). Physical activity change during COVID-19 confinement. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(18), 1–10.

Ciccarelli, M., Borgogni, A., & Capelli, G. (2016). The relationship between Physical Activity , Elderly and Technologies : a literature review. In D. Novak, B. Antala, & D. Knjaz (Eds.), Physical Education and New Technologies. Croatian Kinesiology.

Close, G. L., Ashton, T., Cable, T., Doran, D., & MacLaren, D. P. M. (2004). Eccentric exercise, isokinetic muscle torque and delayed onset muscle soreness: The role of reactive oxygen species. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 91(5–6), 615–621.

Cogliati, M., Cudicio, A., Negro, F., Gaffurini, P., Bissolotti, L. M., & Orizio, C. (2019). Influence of age on motor control accuracy during static ramp contractions. Experimental Brain Research, 237(8), 1889–1897.

Cudicio, A., Girardello, A., Negro, F., Orizio, C., Arenghi, A., Legnani, G., & Serpelloni, M. (2019). Topographical and physiological data collection for urban handbike tracks design. Pedestrians, Urban Spaces and Health - Proccedings of the 24th International Conference on Living and Walking in Cities, LWC 2019, (October 2021), 225–229.

Cunningham, C., O’ Sullivan, R., Caserotti, P., & Tully, M. A. (2020). Consequences of physical inactivity in older adults: A systematic review of reviews and meta-analyses. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 30(5), 816–827.

Dunstan, D. W., Kingwell, B. A., Larsen, R., Healy, G. N., Cerin, E., Hamilton, M. T., … Owen, N. (2012). Breaking up prolonged sitting reduces postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Diabetes Care, 35(5), 976–983.

Ekelund, U. (2018). Infographic: Physical activity, sitting time and mortality. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 52(18), 1164–1165.

Ekelund, U., Steene-Johannessen, J., Brown, W. J., Fagerland, M. W., Owen, N., Powell, K. E., … Lee, I.-M. (2016). Does physical activity attenuate, or even eliminate, the detrimental association of sitting time with mortality? A harmonised meta-analysis of data from more than 1 million men and women. The Lancet, 388(10051), 1302–1310.

Ekelund, U., Tarp, J., Steene-Johannessen, J., Hansen, B. H., Jefferis, B., Fagerland, M. W., … Lee, I. M. (2019). Dose-response associations between accelerometry measured physical activity and sedentary time and all cause mortality: Systematic review and harmonised meta-analysis. The BMJ, 366, 1–10.

Fragala, M. S., Cadore, E. L., Dorgo, S., Izquierdo, M., Kraemer, W. J., Peterson, M. D., & Ryan, E. D. (2019). Resistance training for older adults: Position statement from the national strength and conditioning association. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 33(8), 2019–2052.

Franco, M. R., Tong, A., Howard, K., Sherrington, C., Ferreira, P. H., Pinto, R. Z., & Ferreira, M. L. (2015). Older people’s perspectives on participation in physical activity: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative literature. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49(19), 1268–1276.

Gandevia, S. C. (2001). Spinal and supraspinal factors in human muscle fatigue. Physiological Reviews, 81(4), 1725–1789.

Guidetti, L., Broccatelli, M., Baldari, C., Buzzachera, C. F., Goss, F. L., Utter, A. C., & Sgadari, A. (2011). Validation of the Italian version of the OMNI Scale of Perceived Exertion in a sample of Italian-speaking adults. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 112(1), 201–210.

Guidetti, L., Sgadari, A., Buzzachera, C. F., Broccatelli, M., Utter, A. C., Goss, F. L., & Baldari, C. (2011). Validation of the OMNI-Cycle Scale of Perceived Exertion in the Elderly. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 19(3), 214–224.

Hadgraft, N. T., Winkler, E., Climie, R. E., Grace, M. S., Romero, L., Owen, N., … Dempsey, P. C. (2020). Effects of sedentary behaviour interventions on biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk in adults: Systematic review with meta-analyses. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 144–154.

Hall, K. S., Howe, C. A., Rana, S. R., Martin, C. L., & Morey, M. C. (2013). METs and accelerometry of walking in older adults: standard versus measured energy cost. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 45(3), 574–582.

Jefferis, B. J., Parsons, T. J., Sartini, C., Ash, S., Lennon, L. T., Papacosta, O., … Whincup, P. H. (2018). Objectively measured physical activity, sedentary behaviour and all-cause mortality in older men: Does volume of activity matter more than pattern of accumulation? British Journal of Sports Medicine, 1013–1020.

Jesunathadas, M., Marmon, A. R., Gibb, J. M., & Enoka, R. M. (2010). Recruitment and derecruitment characteristics of motor units in a hand muscle of young and old adults. Journal of Applied Physiology, 108(6), 1659–1667.

Kandel, E., Schwartz, J., & Jessell, T. (2000). Principles of neural science.

Kelly, P., Williamson, C., Niven, A. G., Hunter, R., Mutrie, N., &

Richards, J. (2018). Walking on sunshine: Scoping review of the evidence for walking and mental health. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 52(12), 800–806.

Kendzierski, D., & DeCarlo, K. J. (1991). Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale: Two Validation Studies. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 13(1), 50–64.

Kujala, U. M., Pietilä, J., Myllymäki, T., Mutikainen, S., Föhr, T., Korhonen, I., & Helander, E. (2017). Physical Activity: Absolute Intensity versus Relative-to-Fitness-Level Volumes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 49(3), 474–481.

Lesinski, M., Muehlbauer, T., Gollhofer, A., Granacher, U., Hortobágyi, • Tibor, Thomas Muehlbauer, •, … Urs Granacher, •. (2015). Effects of Balance Training on Balance Performance in Healthy Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 45(12), 1721–1738.

Marker, A., Steele, R., Psychology, A. N.-H., & 2018, undefined. (n.d.). Physical activity and health-related quality of life in children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psycnet.Apa.Org.

Mullen, S. P., Olson, E. A., Phillips, S. M., Szabo, A. N., Wójcicki, T. R., Mailey, E. L., … McAuley, E. (2011). Measuring enjoyment of physical activity in older adults: Invariance of the physical activity enjoyment scale (paces) across groups and time. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8, 1–9.

Narushima, M., Liu, J., & Diestelkamp, N. (2018). Lifelong learning in active ageing discourse: its conserving effect on wellbeing, health and vulnerability. Ageing and Society, 38(4), 651–675.

NIH. (2020). GET FIT FOR LIFE- Exercise & Physical Activity for Healthy Age. Nationale Institute on Aging.

Owen, N., Healy, G. N., Matthews, C. E., & Dunstan, D. W. (2010). Too Much Sitting. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 38(3), 105–113.

Puciato, D., Borysiuk, Z., & Rozpara, M. (2017). Quality of life and physical activity in an older working-age population. Clinical Interventions in Aging, Volume 12, 1627–1634.

Reed, J. L., & Pipe, A. L. (2014). The talk test: a useful tool for prescribing and monitoring exercise intensity. Current Opinion in Cardiology, 29(5), 475–480.

Robertson, R. J., Goss, F. L., Andreacci, J. L., Dubé, J. J., Rutkowski, J. J., Frazee, K. M., … Snee, B. M. (2005). Validation of the Children’s OMNI-Resistance Exercise Scale of perceived exertion. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(5), 819–826.

Robertson, R. J., Goss, F. L., Dube, J., Rutkowski, J., Dupain, M., Brennan, C., & Andreacci, J. (2004). Validation of the adult OMNI scale of perceived exertion for cycle ergometer exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(1), 102–108.

Robertson, R. J., Goss, F. L., Rutkowski, J., Lenz, B., Dixon, C., Timmer, J., … Andreacci, J. (2003). Concurrent validation of the OMNI perceived exertion scale for resistance exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(2), 333–341.

Utter, A. C., Robertson, R. J., Green, J. M., Suminski, R. R., McAnulty, S. R., & Nieman, D. C. (2004). Validation of the adult OMNI Scale of Perceived Exertion for walking/running exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(10), 1776–1780.

Vagetti, G. C., Barbosa Filho, V. C., Moreira, N. B., Oliveira, V. de, Mazzardo, O., & Campos, W. de. (2014). Association between physical activity and quality of life in the elderly: a systematic review, 2000-2012. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 36(1), 76–88.

Warburton, D. E. R., Nicol, C. W., & Bredin, S. S. D. (2006). Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence Review. CMAJ, 174(6), 801.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Giornale Italiano di Educazione alla Salute, Sport e Didattica Inclusiva

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Italian Journal of Health Education, Sports and Inclusive Didactics 
ISSN: 2532-3296