Rosaria Arcone, Mariorosario Masullo


The skeletal muscle is considered an endocrine organ as it secretes various myokines. The myokines are produced during skeletal muscle contraction and exert autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine effects even on different organs and tissues. Up to now, many myokines have been described, including the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), irisin, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and insulin-like growth factor1 (IGF-1) are the most relevant also for brain functions. In particular, it is well known that BDNF ameliorates cognitive functions via neuronal differentiation and plasticity in the hippocampal region. Therefore, myokines represent key molecules in the cross-talk between skeletal muscle and brain.


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