THE INFLUENCE OF COACHES’ LEADERSHIP STYLE ON SELF-ESTEEM AND SPORT MOTIVATION IN ADOLESCENT ATHLETES

Anna Maria Mariani, Luigi Piceci, Francesco Maria Melchiori

Abstract


The study investigates the relationship between coaches’ leadership styles and the level of self-esteem and sport motivation in adolescent athletes in a sample of adolescent athletes (n=85 considering different sports) and their coaches (n=10). Previous literature about the youth population suggests that contextual factors can have an important influence on the effects of the sport, e.g. the relations with adults and peers (Brustad, Babkes & Smith, 2001) or the sports program one takes part to (Whitehead & Corbin, 1997). In this research, the coaches’ leadership style was taken into consideration because it has an important influence on athletes’ self-perceptions (Coatsworth & Conroy, 2009). Scientific studies demonstrate that a more supportive, nurturing and encouraging leadership behaviour produce greater changes in youth’s self-esteem (Coatsworth & Conroy, 2006; Smith & Smoll, 1996). Additional evidence showed how the coach’s behaviour influence athletes’ motivation (Amorose & Anderson-Butcher, 2007; Gagné, Ryan & Bargmann, 2003). The results of the data analysis show a strong positive correlation between athletes' self-esteem and coach’s Training & Instruction behaviour and a negative relationship between self-esteem and lack of motivation in athletes. Besides, from a larger sample of coaches (n = 49) the relationship between the coach’s leadership behaviour and his own level of self-esteem was investigated (Rosenberg SES, Prezza et al., 1997). The results highlighted higher levels of Training & Instruction, Autocratic, Social Support and Positive Feedback behaviours in coaches with an average level of self-esteem compared to those with low levels.


Keywords


Self-esteem, leadership style, adolescence, sport motivation, coach

Full Text:

PDF (Italiano)

References


Amorose, A.J., Anderson-Butcher, D. (2007). Autonomy-supportive coaching and self-determined motivation in high school and college athletes: A test of self-determination theory. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 8, 654–670.

Bloemhof, H. J. (2008). Key principles in primary school support programs. African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance, 14, 3, 282-298.

Borghi, G., Borges P.H., Menegassi, V.M., Rinaldi, G.S.W. (2017). Relationship between preferred leadership style and motivation in young soccer regional players. Journal of Physical Education and Sport (JPES), 17, 4, Art 296, 2599 – 2603.

Brooks, D.D., Ziatz, D., Johnson, B., Hollander, D. (2000). Leadership Behaviour and job responsibilities of NCAA division 1A strength and conditioning coaches. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 14, 4, 483-492.

Bruner, M. W., Balish, S. M., Forrest, C., Brown, S., Webber, K., Gray, E., McGuckin, M., Keats, M. R., Rehman, L. and Shields, C. A. (2017) Ties that bond: youth sport as a vehicle for social identity and positive youth development. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 88, 2, 209-214.

Brustad, R. J., Babkes, M. L., Smith, A. L. (2001). Youth in sport: Psychological considerations. In R. N. Singer, H. A. Hausenblas, & C. M. Janelle (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology, 2nd ed., New York: Wiley, 604–635.

Chelladurai, P. (1999). Human resource management in sport and recreation. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Chelladurai, P. (1984). Discrepancy between preferences and perceptions of leadership Behaviour and satisfaction of athletes in varying sports. Journal of Sport Psychology, 6, 27-41.

Chelladurai, P. and Saleh, S. (1980) Dimensions of leader behaviour in sports: Development of a leadership scale, Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2, 1, 34-45.

Chelladurai, P., Imamura, H., Yamaguchi, Y., Oimnuma, Y., & Miyauchi, T. (1988). Sport leadership in a cross-national setting: the case of Japanese and Canadian university athletes. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 10, 374-389.

Coatsworth, J.D., Conroy, D.E. (2009). The Effects of Autonomy-supportive Coaching, Need Satisfaction and Self-Perceptions on Initiative and Identity in Youth Swimmers, Dev Psychol., 45, 2, 320–328.

Coatsworth, J.D., Conroy, D.E. (2006). Enhancing the self-esteem of youth swimmers through coach training: Gender and age effects, Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 7, 173–192.

Côté, J. and Hancock, D. J. (2016) Evidence-based policies for youth sport programmes, International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 8, 1, 51-65.

Cronin, L. D. and Allen, J. (2018) Examining the relationships among the coaching climate, life skills development and well-being in sport, International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 13, 6, 815-827.

Cruz, A.B., Kim, H.D. (2017). Leadership Preferences of Adolescent Players in Sport: Influence of Coach Gender, Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 16, 172-179.

De Albuquerque, L.R., Scheeren, E.M., Vagetti, G.C., De Oliveira, V. (2021). Influence of the Coach's Method and Leadership Profile on the Positive Development of Young Players in Team Sports, Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 20, 9-16.

Duarte, D., Teques, P., Silva, C. (2017). Leadership and satisfaction in soccer: testing congruence with structural equation modeling. Ibero-American Journal of Psychology of Exercise and Sport, 12, 1, 71-82.

Dunham, Y., Baron, A. S., & Banaji, M. R. (2007). Children and social groups: A developmental analysis of implicit consistency in Hispanic Americans, Self and Identity, 6, 238–255.

Ekeland, E., Heian, F., Hagen, K.B. (2005). Can exercise improve self-esteem in children and young people? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials, Br J Sports Med, 39, 792–798.

Ekstrand, J., Lundqvist, D., Davison, M., D’Hooghe, M., Pensgaard, A.M. (2019). Communication quality between the medical team and the head coach/manager is associated with injury burden and player availability in elite football clubs, Br J Sports Med, 53, 304–308. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2018-099411.

Evangelho Hernandez, J.A., Voser, R.d.C. (2012). Validation of the leadership scale for sport: version of preference of athletes, Brasília, DF. 32, 1, 142-156. (In Portugal).

Fletcher, R. B., Roberts, M.H. (2013). Longitudinal stability of the leadership scale for sports, Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 17, 2, 89–104.

Gagné, M., Ryan, R.M., Bargmann, K. (2003). Autonomy support and need satisfaction in the motivation and well-being of gymnasts, Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 15, 372–390.

Gillet, N., Vallerand, R. J., Amoura, S., & Baldes, B. (2010). Influence of coaches’ autonomy support on athletes’ motivation and sport performance: A test of the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11, 155–161. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2009.10.004

González-García, H., Martinent, G. and Nicolas, M. (2020) Relationships between perceived coach leadership and athletes’ affective states experienced during competition, Journal of Sports Sciences, 1-8.

González-García, H., Martinent, G., Trinidad Morales, A. (2019). Perceived coach leadership profiles and relationship with burnout, coping and emotions. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1785. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01785

Hastie, P. A. (1995). Factors affecting coaching preferences of secondary school volleyball players. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 80, 347-350.

Horne, T., Carron, A. V. (1985). Compatibility in coach-athlete relationships. Journal of Sport Psychology, 7, 137-149.

Lerma-Cabrera, J. M., Steinebach, P., Carvajal, F., Ulloa, V., Cid-Parra, C. and Langer, Á. I. (2015) Factores de riesgo asociados al consumo problemático de alcohol en la adolescencia: El rol preventivo de mindfulness, Psychology, Society, & Education, 7, 1, 57-69.

Liu, Y., Wang, Z., Zhou, C., Li, T. (2014). Affect and self-esteem as mediators between trait resilience and psychological adjustment, Personality and Individual Differences, 66, 92-97.

Mariani, A.M., Marcolongo, F., Melchiori, F.M., Peluso Cassese, F. (2019). L’influenza di interventi di rinforzo dell’autostima sul grado di resilienza in atleti adolescenti, Giornale Italiano di Educazione alla Salute, Sport e Didattica Inclusiva, Anno 3, n. 1, 8-22.

Murray, L.S. (2005). Regulating the risk of closeness: A relationship- specific sense of felt security”, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 74-78.

Nicolas, M., Gaudreau, P., Franche, V. (2011). Perception of Coaching Behaviours, Coping, and Achievement in a Sport Competition, Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 33, 460-468.

Ntoumanis, N., Biddle, S.J.H., Haddock, G. (1999). The mediating role of coping strategies on the relationship between achievement motivation and affect in sport, Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 12, 3, 299-327, DOI: 10.1080/10615809908250480.

Pelletier, L.G., Rocchi, M.A., Vallerand, R.J., Deci E.L., Ryan, R.M. (2013). Validation of the revised sport motivation scale (SMS-II), Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14, 329-341.

Prezza, M., Trombaccia, L., Armento, F. (1997). La scala dell'autostima di Rosenberg: traduzione e validazione italiana, Bollettino di psicologia applicata, 223, 35-44

Reeve, J. (2006). Extrinsic Rewards and Inner Motivation. In C. M. Evertson & C. S. Weinstein (Eds.), Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary issues, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, 645–664.

Roberts, G. C., Treasure, D. C., Conroy, D. E. (2007). Understanding the dynamics of motivation in sport and physical activity: An achievement goal interpretation. In G. Tenenbaum & R. C. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 3–30.

Rosenberg, M. (1965), Society and the Adolescent Self-Image, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Rosenberg, M. (1979), Conceiving the Self, Basic Books, New York, NY.

Salminen, S., Luikkonen, J. (1994). The convergent and discriminant validity of the coach’s version of the leadership scale for sports, 25, 1, 119-127.

Sarkova, M., Bacikova-Sleskova, M., Geckova, A.M., Katreniakova, Z., Van den Heuvel, W., Van Dijk, J.P. (2014). Adolescents’ psychological well-being and self-esteem in the context of relationships at school, Educational Research, 56, 4, 367-378, DOI:10.1080/00131881.2014.965556

Sherman, C. A., Fuller, R., & Speed, H. D. (2000). Gender comparisons of preferred coaching behaviours in Australian sports. Journal of Sport Behaviour, 23, 4, 389-406.

Smith, R. E., Smoll, F. L. (1996). The coach as a focus of research and intervention in youth sports. In F. L. Smoll & R. E. Smith (Eds.), Children and youth in sport. A biopsychosocial perspective, Dubuque, IA: Brown & Benchmark, 125-141.

Vanhalst, J., Luyckx, K., Scholte, R.H.J., Engels, R.C.M.E., Goossens, L. (2013). Low self-esteem as a risk factor for loneliness in adolescence: Perceived – but not actual – social acceptance as an underlying mechanism, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41, 1067-1081.

Vella, S. A., Oades, L. G. and Crowe, T. P. (2013) The relationship between coach leadership, the coach–athlete relationship, team success, and the positive developmental experiences of adolescent soccer players, Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 18, 5, 549-561.

Weinberg, R. S., Gould, D. (2016) Fundamentos da psicologia do esporte e do exercício, Artmed editora.

Whitehead, J.R., Corbin, C.B. (1997). Self-esteem in children and youth: The role of sport and physical education. In K. R. Fox (Ed.), The physical self: From motivation to well-being, 175–203. Human Kinetics.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.32043/gsd.v5i2.397

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Giornale Italiano di Educazione alla Salute, Sport e Didattica Inclusiva

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Italian Journal of Health Education, Sports and Inclusive Didactics 
ISSN: 2532-3296