Giuseppe Pepe, Daniele Albano, Rodolfo Vastola


This article gives an overview of how a coach-centric training approach has several limitations. In contrast to this, the "Constraints-led Approach" (CLA) is presented, in which the environment, the organism and the task are at the center of the creation of training sessions aimed at improving the execution of the technical gesture. A practical example of a specific CLA-based training session for volleyball is proposed, with the aim of demonstrating how this approach can be implemented and how it differs from a traditional training methodology.


Constraints-led approach, affordances, constraints, volleyball

Full Text:

PDF (Italiano)


Araujo, D., Davids, K., & Hristovski, R. (2006). The ecological dynamics of decision making in sport. Psychology of sport and exercise, 7(6), 653-676.

Bahr R, Maehlum S. Types and causes of injury. In: Clinical guide to Sports Injuiries. Bahr R, Maehlum S, Eds. Canada: human Kinetics, Champaign, Illinois 2004. Pp. 46.

Davids, K., Araújo, D., Shuttleworth, R., & Button, C. (2003). Acquiring skill in sport: A constraints-led perspective. SPORT WYCZYNOWY, 41(11/12), 5-16.

Farrow, D., & Abernethy, B. (2003). Do expertise and the degree of perception—action coupling affect natural anticipatory performance?. Perception, 32(9), 1127-1139.

Hall S. Kinetic concepts for analyzing human motion. In: BASIC Biomechanics: McGraw Hill, New York, NY, 2012. Pp. 70-73.

Lew H, Richard M, Graham J. Knowledge and conscious control of motor action under stress. Br J Psychol 87: 621-636, 1996.

Masters RSW, Poolton JM, Maxwell JP, Raab M. Implicit motor learning and complex decision making in time. Constrained environments. J Mot Behav 40:71-79, 2008.

Masters RSW, Poolton JM. Advances in implicit motor learning. In: Skill Acquisition in Sport Research, Theory and Practice. Hodges NJ, Williams AM, Ed’s. New York, NY: Rourledge, 2012. pp. 59-75.

Masters RSW. Knowledge, nerves and know-how: The role of explicit versus implicit knowledge in the breakdown of a complex motor skill under pressure. Br J Psychol 83: 343-358, 1992.

Patterson JT, Lee TD. Effective practice is more just reps. In: Developing Sporting Experties: Research and Coaches Put Theroy into Practice. Farrow D, Barker J, MacMahon C, Ed’s. New York, NY: Rutledge, 2013. pp. 148.

Poolton JM, Masters RSW, Maxwell JP. Passing Thoughts on the evolutionary stability of implicit motor behaviour: Performance retention under physiological fatigue. Conscious Cogn 16: 456-468, 2007.

Renshaw, I., Davids, K., Newcombe, D., & Roberts, W. (2019). The constraints-led approach: Principles for sports coaching and practice design. Routledge.

Rucci JA, Tomporowski PD. Three types of kinematic feedback and the execution of the hang power clean. J Strength Cond Res 24: 771-778, 2010.

Whitmore, J., Kauffman, C., & David, S. (2013). GROW grows up: from winning the game to pursuing transpersonal goals. Beyond goals: effective strategies for coaching and mentoring, 245-260.

Young B, Warren. Transfer of strength and power training to sport performance. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 1: 74-83, 2006.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.32043/gsd.v5i2.366


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Giornale Italiano di Educazione alla Salute, Sport e Didattica Inclusiva

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Italian Journal of Health Education, Sports and Inclusive Didactics 
ISSN: 2532-3296