Addolorata Amadoro, Diana Carmela Di Gennaro


Metaverse represents a further evolutionary stage of the ongoing educational digital transformation which leads to a redefinition of the concepts of body, environment, perception and interaction.

Considering that the learning process of blind students is deeply affected by the non-visual perception of the environment, it is necessary to reflect on how digital barriers can be overcome by allowing blind students to access the virtual learning environment thus promoting a real inclusive education.



Visual disability, inclusive digital education, e-accessibility, Embodied Cognition

Full Text:



Accoto, C. (2022). Il mondo in sintesi. Cinque brevi lezioni di filosofia della simulazione. Milano: EGEA.

Aiello, P., D'Elia, F., Di Tore, S., & Sibilio, M. (2012). A constructivist approach to virtual reality for experiential learning. E-learning and Digital Media, 9(3), 317-324.

Arrigo, M. (2005). E-learning accessibility for blind students. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies, 8(2), 1-5.

Bilyalova, A., Bazarova, L., Salimova, D., & Patenko, G. (2021). The digital educational environment: The problem of its accessibility for visually impaired students. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (Online), 16(16), 221.

Caldin R., Polato E. (2023). Touching, knowing, representing. From touch to tactile images: the thinking of Montessori, Munari, Romagnoli, Ceppi. Italian Journal of Special Education for Inclusion, XI (1), 93‐102.

Caruana F., Borghi A. M. (2016). Il cervello in azione. Bologna: Il Mulino.

Chung, S., Lee, K., Oh. U. (2020). Investigating three-dimensional directional guidance with nonvisual feedback for target pointing task. IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality Adjunct (ISMAR-Adjunct). IEEE, (2), pp. 206–210.

Dengel, A., & Mägdefrau, J. (2020, June). Immersive learning predicted: Presence, prior knowledge, and school performance influence learning outcomes in immersive educational virtual environments. In 2020 6th International Conference of the Immersive Learning Research Network (iLRN) (pp. 163–170). IEEE.

Di Gennaro, D. C., & Amadoro, A. (2023). Digital competence and self-determination: new frontiers for onlife education from an inclusive perspective. ICERI2023 Proceedings, pp. 6540-6545. IATED.

Di Tore, S., Sibilio, M. (2022). Dal metaverso alla stampa 3D. Prospettive semplesse della didattica innovativa. Roma: Edizioni Studium.

European Schoolnet. (2019), Building learning labs and innovative learning spaces. Pratical guidelines for school leaders and teacher. European Schoolnet. (

Finestrone, F., Limone, P., & Peconio, G. (2023). Nuovi scenari di progettazione educativa: esperienze di didattica immersiva. IUL Research, 4 (7), 190–203.

Floridi, L., Cabitza, F. (2021). Intelligenza artificiale. L’uso delle nuove macchine. Milano: Bompiani.

Gibson, J.J. (1979). The ecological approach to the visual perception. London, UK: Taylor and Francis Group.

Gros, B. (2016). The design of smart educational environments. Smart Learning Environments. 3 (15).

Guerreiro, J., Kim, Y., Nogueira, R., Chung S.A., Rodriguez, A., Oh, U. (2023). The design space of the auditory representation of objects and their behaviours in virtual reality for blind people. IEEE Transactions on visualization and computer graphics, XXIX (5), pp. 2763-2771.

Han, I. (2019). Immersive virtual field trips in education: A mixed‐methods study on elementary students' presence and perceived learning. British Journal of Educational Technology. 51 (2), 420–435.

Hersh, M. A., Johnson, M. S. (Eds.). (2014). Technology for Visually Impaired and Blind People. London: Springer-Verlag.

Kull, K. (2001). Jakob von Uexküll: An introduction. Semiotica. 134 (1/4), 1–59.

Mayer, V., Schönberger, K., Cukier, K. (2013). Big data: A Revolution that will Transform how we Live, Work, and Think. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Merleau-Ponty, M. (1976). Phénoménologie de la perception. A. Bonomi, (trad. It.). Fenomenologia della percezione. Bompiani, 2003.

MIUR. Piano Scuola 4.0.

OECD. (2017), OECD Framework for a Module on the Physical Learning Environment - Revised Edition. Paris: OECD publishing.

OECD. (2017), The OECD handbook for innovative learning environments. Paris: OECD Publishing.

Oprean, D., & Balakrishnan, B. (2020). From engagement to user experience: a theoretical perspective towards immersive learning. Learner and user experience research.

Patrick, E., Cosgrove, D., Slavkovic, A., Rode, J. A., Verratti, T., & Chiselko, G. (2000). Using a large projection screen as an alternative to head-mounted displays for virtual environments. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 478–485). ACM.

Picciano, A. G. (2012). The evolution of big data and learning analytics in American Higher Education. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks. 16 (3), 9-20.

Ren, G., Wei, S., O’Neill, E., Chen, F. (2018). Towards the design of effective haptic and audio displays for augmented reality and mixed reality applications. Advances in Multimedia, (2).

Seldon, A., Abidoye, O., & Metcalf, T. (2020). The Fourth Education Revolution Reconsidered: Will Artificial Intelligence Enrich Or Diminish Humanity? London: Legend Press Ltd.

Sibilio, M., Di Gennaro D.C., Zollo, I. (2017). L’agire corporeo. F. Bochicchio, P.C. Rivoltella (eds.) L’agire organizzativo. Brescia: ELS LA SCUOLA

Sibilio, M. (2020). L'interazione didattica. Brescia: Morcelliana.

Spector, J. M. (2014). Conceptualizing the emerging field of smart learning environments. Smart Learning Environments. 1 (2).

UNESCO. (2017), In pursuit of smart learning environments for the 21st century. Bangkok: UNESCO International Bureau of Education.

UNESCO. (2019), Agenda 2030. UNESCO International Bureau of Education.

Varela, F.J., Thompson, E., Rosch, E. (2017). The Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human Experience. MIT Press Ltd.

Vojtech, R. (2016). Digital barriers in educating students with visual impairment. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 217, 935-940.

WHO. (2001). International Classification of functionning, disability and health (ICF). Genève: WHO Press.



  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Italian Journal of Health Education, Sports and Inclusive Didactics 
ISSN: 2532-3296