Maria Elena Tassinari, Massimo Marcuccio


In recent years, immersive virtual reality (IVR) has increased in many areas of society, including education, schooling, and training. Many researchers have conducted extensive experiments and empirical research. However, some of the main systematic reviews on this topic reveal the need to explicate and/or describe the theoretical models related to the teaching-learning process mediated by IVR in a more articulate way.

In this regard, the contribution intends to present a description and a critical analysis of the leading models in the literature relating to the IVR-mediated learning process and IVR instructional design. The aim is to provide a systematic overview of the theoretical tools used so far that can serve as a reference for the design of future empirical research on the use of IVR within teaching-learning processes.


Immersive virtual reality; instructional design model; learning model; educational context

Full Text:



Allen, W. C. (2006). Overview and evolution of the ADDIE training system. Advances in developing human resources, 430-441.

Castelhano, M., Morgado, L., & Pedrosa, D. (2023). Instructional design models for immersive virtual reality - A systematic literature review. XXV Simpósio Internacional de Informática Educativa, 272-278.

Castronovo, F. (2019). Design and development of a virtual reality educational game for architectural and construction reviews. ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings, American Society for Engineering Education, 2019.

Dalgarno, B., & Lee, M. J. (2010). What are the learning affordances of 3-D virtual environments? British Journal of Educational Technology, 10-32.

Engestrom, Y. (1987). Learning by expanding: An activity theoretical approach to developmental research. Orienta-Konsultit.

Fragkaki, M., Hatzligeroydis, I., & Palkova, Z. (2019). Instructional Design in Virtual Reality Environments: The case of Palestinian HEIs. 10th International Conference on Information, Intelligence, Systems and Applications, IISA 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019, (pp. 1-4).

Hamilton, D., McKechnie, J., & Edgerton, E. (2021). Immersive virtual reality as a pedagogical tool in education: a systematic literature review of quantitative learning outcomes and experimental design. Journal of Computers in Education, 1-32.

Illeris, K. (2018). A comprehensive understanding of human learning. In K. Illeris, Contemporary Theories of Learning (2nd ed.) (pp. 1-14). Routledge.

Jarvis, P. (2006). Towards a comprehensive theory of human learning. Routledge.

Jensen, L., & Konradsen, F. (2018). A review of the use of virtual reality head-mounted displays in education and training. Education and Information Technologies, 1515–1529.

Makransky, G. (2022). The Immersion Principle in Multimedia Learning. In R. Mayer, & F. Logan, The Cambridge Handbook of multimedia learning (3rd ed.) (pp. 296-303). Cambridge University Press.

Makransky, G., & Mayer, R. E. (2022). Benefits of taking a virtual field trip in immersive virtual reality: Evidence for the immersion principle in multimedia learning. Educational Psychology Review.

Makransky, G., & Petersen, G. B. (2021). The Cognitive Affective Model of Immersive Learning (CAMIL): a Theoretical Research-Based Model of Learning in Immersive Virtual Reality. Educational Psychology Review, 937-958.

Makransky, G., & Peterson, G. B. (2023). The Theory of Immersive Collaborative Learning (TICOL). Educational Psychology Review, 1-34.

Marcuccio, M., Tassinari, M., & Pistillo, M. (2023). Immersive virtual reality and learning assessment. An exploratory research in a high school. QTimes, 214-231.

Marougkas, A., Troussas, C., & Krouska, A. (2023). Virtual Reality in Education: A Review of Learning Theories, Approaches and Methodologies for the Last Decade. Eletronics, 1-21.

Mayer, R. E. (2009). The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning (2nd Edition). Cambridge University Press.

Mellet-d'Huart, D. (2021). Learning in Virtual Environments: What About Paradigms and Metamodels? An Illustration Through Enaction and Trinologic. In G. Ackayir, & C. Demmans Epp, Designing, Deploying, and Evaluating Virtual and Augmented Reality in Education (pp. 1-19). IGI Global.

Morrison, G. (2011). Designing effective instruction. Wiley.

Mulders, M., Buchner, J., & Kerres, M. (2022). Virtual Reality in Vocational Training: A Study Demonstrating the Potential of a VR-based Vehicle Painting Simulator for Skills Acquisition in Apprenticeship Training. Technology, Knowledge and Learning.

Pellas, N., Dengel, A., & Christopoulos, A. (2020). A Scoping Review of Immersive Virtual Reality in STEM Education. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES, 748-761.

Radianti, J., Majchrzak, T. A., Fromm, J., & Wohlgenannt, I. (2020). A systematic review of immersive virtual reality applications for higher education: Design elements, lessons learned, and research agenda. Computers & Education, 1-29.

Reigeluth, C. M., & Keller, J. B. (2009). Understanding instruction. In C. M. Reigeluth, & A. Carr-Chellman, Instructional-design theories and models. Building a common knowledge base (Vol. 3) (pp. 27-40). Routledge.

Reigeluth, C. M., & Moore, J. (1999). Cognitive education and the cognitive domain. In C. M. Reigeluth, Instructional-design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory (Vol. 2) (pp. 51-68). Lawrence Erlbaum.

Rubio-Tamayo, J. L., Barrio, M. G., & Garcìa Garcìa, F. (2017). Immersive Environments and Virtual Reality: Systematic Review and Advances in Communication, Interaction and Simulation. Multimodal Technologies and Interact, 1-20.

Shippee, M., & Lubinsky, J. (2021). TrainingandLearninginVirtualReality: Designing for Consistent, Replicable, and Scalable Solutions. International Conference on Electrical, Computer, and Energy Technologies, ICECET 2021. Cape Town-South Africa.

Tacgic, Z., & Dalgarno, B. (2021). Builidng an Instructional Design Model for Immersive Virtual Reality Learning Environments. In G. Ackayir, & C. Demmans Epp, Designing, Deploying, and Evaluating Virtual and Augmented Reality in Education (pp. 20-47). IGI Global.

Tacgin, Z. (2017). Ameli yathanede kullanılan cerrahi setlerin öğretimine yönelik bir sanal gerçeklik simülasyonunun geli(tirilmesi ve değerlendirilmesi. Tesi di dottorato, università di Marmara, Istanbul.

Tennyson, R. (2005). Learning Theories and Istructional Design: A Historical Perspective of the Linking Model . In J. M. Spector, C. Ohrazda, & A. Van Schaack, Innovations in instructional technology: Essay in honor of M. David Merrill (pp. 219-235). Lawrence Eribaum Associates Publishers.

Winn, W. (2002). Learning in artificial environments: Embodiment embeddedness and dynamic adaptation. Techniques Instruction Cognition and Learning.

Wu, B., Yu, X., & Gu, X. (2020). Effectiveness of immersive virtual reality using head-mounted displays on learning performance: A meta-analysis. British Journal of Educational Technology, 1991–2005.



  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Italian Journal of Health Education, Sports and Inclusive Didactics 
ISSN: 2532-3296