Alessandro Cudicio, Francesco Ricciardi, Alfonso Esposito


Athletic conditioning is crucial in sports education and is enhanced by tech tools for optimal results. Sport Science students used GPS data to design two training sessions for 22 individuals. One session included a ball, the other didn’t. Findings showed that including a ball reduced time spent running over 16km/h, suggesting physical conditioning should prioritize physiological demands over sport-specific skills. GPS technology proves valuable for future Sport Scientists to customize training effectively


Sport; Training; Technology

Full Text:



Aughey, R. J. (2011). Applications of GPS Technologies to Field Sports. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 6(3), 295–310.

Beato, M., Drust, B., & Iacono, A. Dello. (2021). Implementing High-speed Running and Sprinting Training in Professional Soccer. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 42(4), 295–299.

Beattie, K., Kenny, I. C., Lyons, M., & Carson, B. P. (2014). The effect of strength training on performance in endurance athletes. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 44(6), 845–865.

Bosco, C., & Vittori, C. (1986). Biomechanical characteristics of sprint running during maximal and supra-maximal speed. AAF, New Studies in Athletics, 1, 39–45.

Caspersen, C. J., Powell, K. E., & Christenson, G. M. (1985). Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Reports (Washington, D.C. : 1974), 100(2), 126–131.

Chuang, S.-J., Sung, Y.-C., Chen, C.-Y., Liao, Y.-H., & Chou, C.-C. (2019). Can Match-Mimicking Intermittent Practice Be Used as a Simulatory Training Mode of Competition Using Olympic Time Frame in Elite Taekwondo Athletes? Frontiers in Physiology, 10, 244.

Figueiredo, D. H., Figueiredo, D. H., Manoel, F. de A., & Machado, F. A. (2021). Peak Running Velocity or Critical Speed Under Field Conditions: Which Best Predicts 5-km Running Performance in Recreational Runners? Frontiers in Physiology, 12.

Gameiro, N., Rodrigues, F., Antunes, R., Matos, R., Amaro, N., Jacinto, M., & Monteiro, D. (2023). Mental Toughness and Resilience in Trail Runner’s Performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 130(3), 1202–1220.

Ghasem, W., Valenzuela, J., & Saxon, L. A. (2021). Player Tracking Technology and Data for Injury Prevention in the National Football League. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 20(9), 436–439.

Guppy, F., Muniz-Pardos, B., Angeloudis, K., Grivas, G. V, Pitsiladis, A., Bundy, R., Zelenkova, I., Tanisawa, K., Akiyama, H., Keramitsoglou, I., Miller, M., Knopp, M., Schweizer, F., Luckfiel, T., Ruiz, D., Racinais, S., & Pitsiladis, Y. (2023). Technology Innovation and Guardrails in Elite Sport: The Future is Now. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 53(Suppl 1), 97–113.

Hardy, S., Dutz, T., Wiemeyer, J., Göbel, S., & Steinmetz, R. (2015). Framework for personalized and adaptive game-based training programs in health sport. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 74(14), 5289–5311.

Iaia, F. M., Rampinini, E., & Bangsbo, J. (2009). High-intensity training in football. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 4(3), 291–306.

Kolman, N. S., Kramer, T., Elferink-Gemser, M. T., Huijgen, B. C. H., & Visscher, C. (2019). Technical and tactical skills related to performance levels in tennis: A systematic review. Journal of Sports Sciences, 37(1), 108–121.

Li, R. T., Kling, S. R., Salata, M. J., Cupp, S. A., Sheehan, J., & Voos, J. E. (2016). Wearable Performance Devices in Sports Medicine. Sports Health, 8(1), 74–78.

Loturco, I., Freitas, T. T., Zabaloy, S., Pereira, L. A., Moura, T. B. M. A., Fernandes, V., Mercer, V. P., Alcaraz, P. E., Zając, A., & Bishop, C. (2023). Speed Training Practices of Brazilian Olympic Sprint and Jump Coaches: Toward a Deeper Understanding of Their Choices and Insights (Part II). Journal of Human Kinetics, 89, 187–211.

Maggioni, M. A., Bonato, M., Stahn, A., La Torre, A., Agnello, L., Vernillo, G., Castagna, C., & Merati, G. (2019). Effects of Ball Drills and Repeated-Sprint-Ability Training in Basketball Players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 14(6), 757–764.

Martín-Rodríguez, A., Gostian-Ropotin, L. A., Beltrán-Velasco, A. I., Belando-Pedreño, N., Simón, J. A., López-Mora, C., Navarro-Jiménez, E., Tornero-Aguilera, J. F., & Clemente-Suárez, V. J. (2024). Sporting Mind: The Interplay of Physical Activity and Psychological Health. Sports (Basel, Switzerland), 12(1).

Modric, T., Malone, J. J., Versic, S., Andrzejewski, M., Chmura, P., Konefał, M., Drid, P., & Sekulic, D. (2022). The influence of physical performance on technical and tactical outcomes in the UEFA Champions League. BMC Sports Science, Medicine & Rehabilitation, 14(1), 179.

Quistberg, D. A. (2024). Potential of artificial intelligence in injury prevention research and practice. Injury Prevention : Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention, 30(2), 89–91.

Scott, B. K., & Houmard, J. A. (1994). Peak running velocity is highly related to distance running performance. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 15(8), 504–507.

Taber, C. B., Sharma, S., Raval, M. S., Senbel, S., Keefe, A., Shah, J., Patterson, E., Nolan, J., Sertac Artan, N., & Kaya, T. (2024). A holistic approach to performance prediction in collegiate athletics: player, team, and conference perspectives. Scientific Reports, 14(1), 1162.

Temm, D. A., Standing, R. J., & Best, R. (2022). Training, Wellbeing and Recovery Load Monitoring in Female Youth Athletes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(18).

Theodoropoulos, J. S., Bettle, J., & Kosy, J. D. (2020). The use of GPS and inertial devices for player monitoring in team sports: A review of current and future applications. Orthopedic Reviews, 12(1), 7863.

Ungureanu, A. N., Brustio, P. R., & Lupo, C. (2021). Technical and tactical effectiveness is related to time-motion performance in elite rugby. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 61(2), 167–174.

Wackerhage, H., & Schoenfeld, B. J. (2021). Personalized, Evidence-Informed Training Plans and Exercise Prescriptions for Performance, Fitness and Health. Sports Medicine, 51(9), 1805–1813.

Windt, J., MacDonald, K., Taylor, D., Zumbo, B. D., Sporer, B. C., & Martin, D. T. (2020). “To Tech or Not to Tech?” A Critical Decision-Making Framework for Implementing Technology in Sport. Journal of Athletic Training, 55(9), 902–910.



  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Italian Journal of Health Education, Sports and Inclusive Didactics 
ISSN: 2532-3296