Jean Baptiste Habarurema, Raffaele Di Fuccio, Pierpaolo Limone, Muhammad Amin Nadim


Self-paced modes of e-learning (SPL) are increasingly gaining traction in the current digitally-led educational contexts, producing mixed results. Some studies acknowledge the relevance of SPL in bridging learning space and time, providing students with greater flexibility in scheduling, user-friendly self-pacing of content, and increased autonomy, hence personalizing learning. Others strongly criticize SPL for its greater reliance on students’ self-regulating behaviors for success. The majority of these research is context-based, examining students’ self-reported satisfaction with SPL, specifically to assess whether SPL is commendable as an alternative to or be it blended with traditional instructor-led modes of learning (TIL). This raises major concern about the extent to which the aforementioned relevance of SPL is converted into learning outcomes, especially given students’ difficulty in developing and internalizing self-regulating behaviors. To date, the evidence that SPL contributes to addressing learning needs is yet unknown. To address this, a systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to synthesize evidence from extant research that reported the prevalence of SPL satisfaction. The results showed that the overall pooled satisfaction prevalence is 0.83 (95% CI: 0.73 – 0.92), indicating that 83% of students experienced the learning practices of interest. Besides, the random-effects model produced an estimated average standardized mean difference of \hat{\mu} = 0.494 (95% CI: 0.278 – 0.710) and a significant average outcome difference from zero (z = 4.485, p < 0.0001) when comparing SPL with TIL, indicating that students preferred SPL over TIL, despite their reported insufficient self-regulating behavioral skills. It is suggested that teaching self-regulating behavioral strategies can improve learning outcomes in SPL contexts.


Self-paced E-learning (SPL), learning Satisfaction, prevalence, meta-analysis.

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Italian Journal of Health Education, Sports and Inclusive Didactics 
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